Saturday, October 22, 2016

General Culinary Terms

Culinary Terms in General


additives

substances added to foods to improve them in some way

a la carte

a menu that offers each food and beverage item priced and served separately

albumin

the clear white of an egg

al dente

"to the bite"; to cook pasta so that it is not too soft or overdone

amino acids

small units of protein that have been broken down through digestion

appetizers

a small proportion of a food or drink served before or at the beginning of a meal

au jus

served in the natural juices that flow from the meat as it cooks

bacteria

leading cause of food borne illnesses

base

a concentrated flavoring compound used in place of stock

batonnet

1/4 in.thick matchstick shaped cuts

bechamel

a white sauce, sometimes seasoned with onion and nutmeg

blanching

using the boiling method to partially cook food

braising

a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food

brigade

a team of people in a food service operation in which each member specializes in a particular type of food preparation

brunoise

1/8 in. thick cubes cut from julienne slices

caramelize

the process of cooking sugar to high temperatures

carbohydrates

organic compounds, including sugars, such as sucrose, cellulose, glycogen and starch

carryover cooking

food that retains heat and continues to cook even after being removed from the source of heat

chiffonade

to finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs

cholesterol

a fatty substance found in all body cells and in all animal foods, such as meat, egg yolk, and dairy

clarify

to remove particles in soup as they float to the top

consumme

a concentrated, clear soup made from rich broth

coulis

a sauce made from a fruit or vegetable puree

cross contamination

the passing of bacteria or microorganisms between substances

crudite

the french word for "raw" or in this case raw vegetables

deglaze

to remove any leftover scraps of food from a pan; then add a small amount of hot water or stock and cook on top of the range

demi-glace

a concentrated brown stock that has been reduced

docking

the process of making small holes in the surface of an item before baking

dredging

to coat foods with flour or finely ground crumbs

emulsify

an additive such as egg yolk, that allows UN-mixable liquids such as oil and water, to combine uniformly

flow of food

the path food takes from receiving to disposal where hazards can be controlled and dangers minimized

food handler

server who handles the food

garde manger

a cool room for storing foods and for preparing certain dishes, especially cold buffet dishes

glucose

simple and complex carbohydrates that are broken down into usable energy

gluten

a firm, elastic substance that affects the texture of baked products.

glycogen

a storage form of glucose

HACCP

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

hand sanitizer

special liquids that kill bacteria on your skin, often without the use of water

infuse

to extract the flavors of a substance by placing it in a hot liquid.

julienne

1/8th in. thick matchstick shaped cuts

leavening agent

a substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide or other gases

mirepoix

a mixture of coarsely chopped vegetables and herbs

mise en place

a french term that means "to put in place"

parboil

to boil partially or for a short time

poach

cooking food in a flavorful liquid between 150 degrees and 185 degrees Fahrenheit.

roux

a cooked mixture made from equal parts of fat and flour by weight

saute

cooked or browned in a pan containing a small quantity of butter, oil, or other fat

stewing

a combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then completely covered with liquid while cooking

sweating

the process of cooking vegetables in fat over low heat to allow them to release moisture

thickening agent

a thickener or substance in which viscosity of a liquid is increased

trueing

the process of using a steel to keep a knife blade straight and to smooth out any irregularities; after the knife has been sharpened

whet stone

a stone for sharpening cutlery or tools by friction

yield

number of servings that are generated by a certain recipe

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